How To Choose The Best ClickBank Health Niche Blog Posts

Every company person knows the fact a fruitful company depends considerably on the existence of an audio advertising strategy. In the absence of this type of strategy, all of your other initiatives are essentially useless. This really is all the more true when it comes to online organizations, as your competition is fiercer on the Internet. We could get as far as expressing that your Web company will quickly arrive at an end if you crash to produce great use of all assets that you’ve at your disposal when it comes to generating quality traffic to your online site.

Your advertising strategy ought to be a complex one and includes a variety of search engine optimization services, such for instance article distribution, directory submissions, cultural bookmarking, and website posting. These are some of the top ways to promote a web page and the expense of such seo services are nothing set alongside the advantages they bring. Only consider what advantages would derive from having thousands as well as thousands of prospective customers visiting your website every day and you’ll certainly concur that search engine optimization services are an investment worth making. Guest post

An SEO post is one of the most effective ways of generating long-haul traffic, particularly if applicable material is submitted on private blogs. Needless to say that your freshly produced website is likely to be found by key search motors faster than it would be if you had been to only wait for that to take place without resorting to any advertising strategies. Moreover, a seo post will also support improve your position with the most important search motors, which, will change into more targeted traffic to your online site.

Once you’ve handled to have continuous quality traffic to your website, you decide to help keep your guests finding their way back, but more regularly than perhaps not, getting to the stage where you’ve to show unexpected customers into devoted types is probably the most difficult task. And this really is where each one of these seo strategies, including website submitting, comes into place. However, a seo post is not a thing that everybody can do. Wherever you post your article is of the utmost value and therefore is the caliber of the text and its relevance for search engines. Along with all this, website submitting can be a really time-consuming task. Therefore, it’s recommended that you make use of a professional website submitting service.

A professional website submitting support could be the surest method to take advantage of all of the advantages that derive from applying all of the advertising possibilities that the Web provides. SEO specialists can create articles that can be abundant with applicable keywords and post them manually on tens or a huge selection of private quality blogs. Quite simply, an excellent website submitting support can help raise your rank with key search motors and create targeted traffic to your online site.

A seo post is really a cheap, yet equally effective alternative to an expensive advertising campaign. It can be a really powerful advertising software, offered it’s employed by skilled seo specialists. Important material and submitting on well-ranked websites is something that only a professional website submitting support can provide.

Winning Boxing Sports Bets

Although you can place sport bets online on many sporting events, nothing beats the thrill of betting on a price fight. Boxing can be a complicated sport and it is not easy to bet on. If you win, the rewards can be great. To win, you must be very persistent with your wagers. Continue reading to find out more.

Learn More About The Boxers

Research is a key component of any bet on sports. The amount of information Gervonta Davis you have can directly impact your betting results. You must study past matches to determine if you are able to win boxing bets. It is important to assess their motivation and training levels prior to the fight. Also, you need to know if they are moving up or down in weight. A major factor in determining the outcome is the skill of the trainer. These and other factors should form the basis of your sport betting.

Window shopping for the best odds

Once you have decided which fighter you want to bet on, Now it is time to look around for the best odds. Place your sport bets with the odds that you would make the most money. For tips, go to gambling websites if you are unable to ask around fighters.

Money Lines 101

Every sport has its betting rules. Money lines in boxing are just one of the many rules you need to be aware of. Money lines are simply determined by the match records and wager amounts of both fighters. Let’s assume that the money line for a championship super featherweight fight is -200 to win $50. You will need to wager $200 if you are going to place your money on the champion, who is the heavily-favored fighter. You will need to place a $50 wager if you want to root for the underdog. You get $200 if he wins!

Because of the many wagers placed on the odds-on favourite, one-sided matches such as these can result in lower profits. If the odds are even, betting can be intense and exciting.

You can hit two birds with one bet

Parlay in gambling parlance is when you place two wagers at once. Boxing betting can help you win more money. You can bet on who wins and how it was won. You will win more money if you place your bets correctly. Boxing fights can be so unpredictable that you need to determine if parlay betting is possible. Sometimes it is better to stay with the odds than try your luck.

Boxing betting can be rewarding and lucrative because of all the factors that affect the outcome. If you’re thinking of making sport bets, consider boxing.

Hotels and Holidays in Cyprus, Algarve and other destinations: Great Sports Events Every summer

It is important to view a holiday as more than just a relaxing time in the sun for a few weeks. This aspect of the holiday is essential, and especially for replenishing your mind as well as your spirit. But, exercise has never been fatal. A bit of sport can help you to rejuvenate your body. Because holidays in Cyprus and the Algarve are a combination of sun and sport, they are ideal for this purpose. It is a great place to snorkel, windsurf and sunbathing due to its beautiful weather.

You should consider booking one of the Algarve hotels as part your next holiday experience. The great news is that there are many What sports events in the Algarve making it a perfect choice for travelers of all ages. January is the start of the sporting season with two events: the Almondblossom Internaional Cross Country Race in Albufeira as well the Grande Premio dos Reis em Atletismo, Faro. With the Volta ao Algarve em Bicileta, and the RDP/Algarve Trophy Race, February is a significant month for cycling. The Algarve International Sailing Tournament takes place every February at Vilamoura. This event is a highlight in the region’s sports calendar. Tennis fans will be delighted by the Vale do Lobo Grand Championship, and the Portugal Beach Open Tennis event in August. Motorsport enthusiasts won’t be disappointed by the World Motor Boat Championship and World Motocross in March and the Baja Terras d’el Rei all terrain car rally in April. Portimao International Horse Jumping Competition in September offers some old-fashioned entertainment. The Algarve is known for its exceptional golfing. Two golf contests take place in November: the TAP Golf Tournament and the Vilamoura Grande Golf Trophy. These two events make the Algarve calendar complete.

There are many budget hotels in Cyprus and Algarve. Although Cyprus is a small country, there are still many thrilling sporting events. The year begins with the Cyprus Sunshine Cup. It is a 3-day cycling race that takes place in February. Head to March’s Troodos Mountains to take part in the Troodos International ski competition. Marathon runners flock to Paphos, Cyprus in March for the annual Cyprus Marathon – a marathon through some of Cyprus’ most stunning settings. In May, the Cyprus Seniors Tennis Cup is held at the Larnaca Tennis Club. For small states to win big, you should also check out the XIII Games of Small States of Europe. The sporting event is held biannually in June and features eight countries competing in mini Olympic games. November is a crucial month for Cyprus sport, with the FIA World Rally Championship (Cyprus International 4-Day Challenge), and the Cyprus Aphrodite Half Marathon.

10 Smart Consumption Habits That You Can Incorporate Into Your Day To Day To Spend Much Less

What this means is everything about your product or service is easy to use, intuitive, is value for money, scalable and ancillary support is impeccable. All of this is obviously immaterial if the product does not solve a real problem or make life easier for the customer. Having a very high customer oriented focus gives your brand a positive ring and becomes increasingly the go-to brand. You can use a simple Net Promoter Score question to understand how referrable is your brand and who are the promoters and detractors of your brand. It is a known fact that is about 10x more expensive to create a new customer rather than to maintain the one you currently have. It is therefore important to have a clear picture of your potential future business.

In this era, education has also become the determinant of social class and the easiest method to climb up in the society. The more educated a person is, the higher the level of discretion he will employ in making purchases. However, the more educated ones take more time before deciding a purchase. Education affects a number of things including the fashion you wear and the programs you watch. It affects even your choice of stationary and the magazines you are reading. Highly educated customers look for information and do not rely on ads alone.

It uses the Canadian census as well as third party data to create a comprehensive map of consumer behavior based on neighborhood. As due to market researching your sales tends to an increase and your customer management gets better, your company gains an opportunity for further business growth and development. Today it is nearly impossible to efficiently sell a product or service without having conducted market research.

The first stage of the process is working out what exactly you or the customer needs. The customer feels like something is missing and needs to address it to get back to feeling normal. If you can determine when your target demographic develops these needs or wants, it would be an ideal time to advertise to them. We bring together survey and social data from thousands of people around the world to find the biggest consumer trends for 2020.

You should study consumer behavior so you know how to create, market, and sell your Knowledge Commerce products effectively. Your company might not be as big as Ford or Apple, but your annual revenue doesn’t decrease the value of consumer behavior. The more you know about what drives your target customers’ buying decisions, the more Knowledge Commerce products you can sell. Behavioralistic characteristic requires a lot of marketing research to find out the product and brand loyalty level of consumers. How people react towards certain offers; when company offers them certain benefits and packages.

Customs are traditional, culturally approved ways of behaving in specific situations. For example, in the United States, Thanksgiving is a holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November with the custom of feasting with family and offering thanks for the things we appreciate in life. Taking your mother to dinner and giving her gifts for Mother’s Day is an American custom that Hallmark and other card companies support enthusiastically. Marketing relies heavily on nonexperiential learning, using tactics like customer testimonials, case studies, and blogger reviews to teach new customers through the experiences and opinions of others.

The young moneyed are in search of luxury brands that are aligned with their personal values and in tune with the digital way they prefer to engage with brands. Diversity and inclusivity are shaping the future in beauty where consumers of any gender, all sexual persuasions and every skin color are seeking to align with brands that understand their individual uniqueness. They will reject brands that force them into a predefined mold of beauty.

In addition, the FDA is continuing its decades-long effort to improve the communication of drug risks and benefits to consumers. Because the FDA’s authority is limited to approving drugs and it cannot decide the price purchasers how long will 10ml cbd oil last will pay , the policy debate over DTCA is mostly limited to its effect on drugs’ safety and effectiveness. The impact of DTCA, and related trends in medical consumerism, on health care costs receives less attention.

Our step-by-step marketing training supports you and your team to plan, manage and effectively optimize both your daily marketing tasks and longer-term strategic action towards your goals. For each of the ten problems, I will also recommend marketing solutions and next steps to help you optimize your marketing strategy to win more customers. Consumerism has risen in practice in the modern world especially since the Industrial Revolution, gradually, hand in hand with Capitalism. In the 20th century, mass production reached the levels of overproduction and thus companies turned to marketing and advertising to manipulate consumer demands.

It opened the 10,000 square feet gallery at the Time Warner Center in Manhattan in September 2003 full of its latest tech­nology. Until it closed in 2011 after the lease expired, Samsung operated it as a pure gallery – to offer customers an experience, not to sell products. In 2013, it entered into an agreement to open Experience Stores how to get on a trial of cbd oil for schizophrenia inside 1400 Best Buy outlets across the US. In January 2014, it announced the opening of 60 Experience Stores across seven European countries in collaboration with electronics retailer Carphone Warehouse. The global expansion of Samsung’s stores is aimed at increasing high street visibility in competing effectively with Apple.

He ought to actually really feel that he has want or need which has arisen and which have to be happy. A strong mannequin needs lower and decrease levels of incremental funding to take care of itself over time. Their behaviour in these cases does move by way of the conventional belief/angle/behaviour sequences. The extra complex and expensive decisions are more likely to involve more purchaser deliberation and more shopping for individuals.

This bias depicts an individual’s tendency to perceive that their actions are superior, especially when compared to peers or demographically similar consumers. It has been found that this cognitive bias is indeed present when considering how consumers perceive their pro-environmental cbd oil for dogs who chew and lick paws efforts. It is a mental defense mechanism that ultimately leads to a reduction in perceived individual responsibility to take part in green behaviors and one-planet-living. Innovations with some or all of these factors are more likely to be adopted quickly.

Most Americans—65 percent—expressed no concern about losing their job. In general, fewer American consumers are feeling economic pressure today than at any time since 2008 . If you’re looking to integrate your digital marketing, Smart Insights membership is a no-brainer. We have options to suit small and large businesses, plus consultants, agencies, and individuals, so you can enhance your skills and grow your business.

Most CEOs believe that if everyone just knew about their new product, they would buy. It looks like companies spend plenty of time on research and development. Surprising, because I would have guessed the main reason for failure was that people just didn’t want the product.

For each group, use “cross tabulations” of the data to reveal their shopping habits and views of the downtown. For telephone and mail surveys, it is important to check the randomness of the sample selected by comparing their demographic characteristics with data for the entire trade area . The overall household income, age, gender, and other characteristics of those surveyed should parallel the percentages for the entire trade area.

The above examples are only a few in the complete canvas of consumer buying behavior. Each sector is different, and the way to find out how to consumer is going to behave is important. Consumer behavior is studied more in sectors which are very concentrated and competitive.

Fundraising Apps for Your Smart Phone or iPhone

The initial type of applications to keep in mind as it pertains to increasing your living production is apps related to operating and obtaining your path around. They are GPS apps, and they primarily change your smart phone in to a small portable GPS device. These programs enable you to simply plug in your local area and you will be able to see regional eateries as well as the addresses of your pals and family.

Bing Maps Navigation is an ideal request that will help you complete only that. That is essentially a smart telephone version of the wildly common web site on the internet that lets people select in guidelines and look for locations. Google’s Maps Request offers satellite and road views that different mobile apps do not provide.

Company programs for the LG Thrill will also be extremely important since they can support people stay structured and produce living much easier for us. Organizational programs may contain apps that allow you to with scheduling and conference sessions and deadlines, as well as applications at that help you add up calendars and even develop your own personal to accomplish lists through the touchscreen and typing efficiency of the phones. It is becoming more difficult to remain along with things today in modern life, as most people have so many different obligations to have a tendency to, so when you can change your cell phone into an ally to help you keep connected and current with modern living, then it’s value taking advantage of.  Shycocan

Mobile Shopping has also become remarkably popular and that’s why there are lots of looking applications obtainable in the Application Market. Most of these applications may give you recommendations and handles and results to the closest malls, retailers, supermarkets, and other areas of contemporary life that you may be enthusiastic about locating in the real world. You may also use such programs to see a number of reviews of shops that will allow you to figure out which keep you are interested in visiting or getting things from.

As you will see, there are several features concerning the LG Thrill can be advantageous to day-to-day living through a number of applications, including programs for operating, buying, and work. Along the way, it would not be considered a poor strategy to look in to some extras such as a data wire, an incident, monitor guard, and a Wireless headset. With a information wire you will have a way to move documents from your own PC to your telephone and the Wireless headset enables you talk hands-free while you travel which is often very advantageous to your safety.

their residence to review if the storage door closed. Acquire some little bit of mind and do not worry about turning everything off before you leave. You are able to turn everything off without actually being there. Hook up to the consumer program, shut storage door and check always any components you may have forgotten. A smart home will also help stop you on-time.

Simplify your house and operate the Home Theater music, video, and several other parts all in one remote control. One remote control is an easy and convenient solution to perform music in virtually any space at anytime. If you prefer audio, use the multi-room sound feature and balance the acoustics in your home. You may be environmentally friendly and enjoy an ideal atmosphere in every room with lighting control. Dimming your lights uses less energy, therefore saving you money. Enjoy control from everywhere with a good phone or net connection. Acquire some bit of mind and monitor your house security while on the road.

On Online Casinos and Online Card Games

Poker is really a card game. It uses playing cards and it’s now popular among men and women the planet over. Poker requires not only skill and talent but inaddition it requires enough determination for players to win.

Before, people used to purchase poker books to serve as their guide so that they would understand the overall game better. The competitive industry, on another hand, has forced people to think about more than just reading regular books about poker, but inaddition it required them to take part into online games (when actual gaming is not possible) to master most of the strategies which can be required of poker players.

There are a lot of ways on how you can gamble and that is true even in other areas of the world. Different casinos now offer a wide selection to support both casual and professional visitors. These people visit casinos to play, relax and have a great time, and hopefully, earn huge sums of money while doing so. There’s also poker rooms begin set up that have are in reality “no deposit poker rooms.” Here, you are given the opportunity to test the room and never having to stake out anything.

You could find it difficult to find the appropriate medium but if you’re sufficient with poker, you realize as you are able to always join different poker rooms so that you can receive multiple bonuses if that’s that which you want. You will notice that there are certainly a lot of casinos where there are no enough tables to support lower limit players (which can be disappointing if you’re a new comer to game).

Besides poker, blackjack is another game that could provide you with a huge payout, if you’re lucky, although many people would still would rather kumpulan situs pkv games terbaik in websites than spend an excessive amount of profit online casinos. They are convenient for most of us because they’re easily accessible and you don’t have to decorate just to play. You also don’t need to rush because online poker games have plenty of tables for low limit players.

Listed here are other games in the casino world that you might be interested in playing. They’re also available online for your convenience.

There’s also video poker games where poker is machine based. Your right strategy and skill remains necessary to win. If you play it right, you can have a one hundred percent return of investment.

Slot machines are also found in casinos and they are also available online. Slots are characterized by quick, easy and fun gambling experiences that also offer a huge payout every once in a while.

Craps one is another game in the casino world that has stayed for years. It can also be a favourite gambling game and it can also be made available online. Current craps game is really a continuation of craps’long standing tradition with gamblers dating as far back as ancient Rome.

Understanding the Need of Having Adequate Business Insurance Cover

Just one ignite can set a store on fire. A straightforward get can cause a long and expensive law suit. You are able to awaken the next day and your corporate vehicle is not on their parking slot. If there’s one thing every business operator knows, it’s the fact that there’s nothing particular and it’s important to cut back risk to the minimum.

Many business owners fall under the trap of perhaps not finding the appropriate business insurance coverage. Let’s dissect that statement further. It is insufficient to make certain your business. Commercial business insurance ought to be your failsafe. Meaning, your organization protect ought to be a thing that encompasses all possible scenarios.

Determining All the Dangers Associated with Your Business

The first step in deciding the best business insurance for the enterprise is completing a thorough audit of your complete business procedures from begin to finish. Ensure that no stone is left unturned. If you are the owner, there’s a high possibility that you might not be aware of every thing that’s occurring in your daily business procedures, so it’s best to bring in your entire managers along with the main element workers to make sure that you never skip anything.

Understanding the Different Kinds of Business Insurance

You can find four key vast forms of commercial business insurance.

The first class is the most frequent – business home insurance. To put it simply, this kind of insurance will provide you with monetary reimbursements, if your organization qualities (i.e. Your workplace, your machineries, etc.) were broken or destroyed.

The 2nd common classification of Business insurance is liability insurance. In the event that you wounded an individual or broken a house through the perform of your organization, this kind of insurance will look after that. For instance, if you are a cafe operator, and some body tucked within your restaurant because of a built consume, you should use your liability insurance to protect for the victim’s hospitalisation expense.

Next may be the automobile insurance that will be basically much like your individual vehicle insurance. It’ll protect the damages inflicted on your own company-owned vehicles including those caused by collision accidents.

Finally, the umbrella commercial business insurance does not perform a particular role. Fairly, it extends the limits of one’s other insurance policies. It are often used to protect other items beyond those which are included in your liability, home and automobile insurance procedures

Sufficiently Trading Towards Your Insurance Guidelines

By distinguishing most of the parts in your procedures that may trigger financial losses to your company, you will be able to recognize which forms of insurance you need. Regardless of selecting an insurance class, you furthermore require to make sure that you are investing enough towards these business insurance policies.

For instance, if you work a resort business with several luxury vehicles to move your guests, you need to spend heavily on automobile insurance and the plan you need to get must have a top premium. You can’t have a $30,000 BMW luxury sedan and just have $5,000 value of automobile insurance.

Secret Behind Technology Blogging: A Best Niche In Blogging

It is no secret that there is a secret behind technology blogging; it is one of the best niches in blogging. Blogging about technology is one of the best ways to get ahead in modern society. In fact, technology blogging is the best niche in blogging these days for anyone who wants to start up a successful business.

If you plan to create a new business or any successful business ventures, one of the best ways to do so is to consider the technology niche in blogging.

The Secrets of Niche Blogging: Technology

These days there are so many technologies to choose from, it’s hard not to blog about them. Some popular examples of technology blogs include:

iPhone how to guides and tutorials

Information and technology news

Technology updates and rumors

The latest technological breakthroughs

Android

Windows and Mac

Technology Editorials and Opinion Pieces

Technology blogs are the perfect accompaniment to a day job although many people find running a niche technology blog can be exciting and take up a bit of time on the side.

How To Run A Successful Secret Technology Niche Blogging Business

It doesn’t take very long to get a niche technology blog up and running. All one need to do is set up a blog account, which is easily done through WordPress or any other free blogging module.

Typically it helps to add a new blog post at least once or twice a week, if not daily. This helps to compete with ultra high-ranking websites. The technology niche is one of the simplest niches to write about.

There are tons of information readily available about most forms of technology. There is always something new in the news about the latest iPhone, or what some star or celebrity has done with their Mac, or latest technology device.

The other approach to technology is writing about how you made money using technology. Most people want nothing more than to learn about how they can make money using technology. And, that is essentially what you do when you create a niche technology blog… make money using technology.

Another great niche in the technology arena is a blog focusing on general technological advances and information. However, the competition for a niche that broad however, may be very high, especially when it comes to purchasing AdSense revenue. If you can narrow your technology niche down significantly, to something very narrow, then you will reap the benefits.

Good, narrow niches are well thought out. Some examples may include very detailed subjects and niche topics, including:

iPhone covers and cases

Android Travel Phones

Mac laptop covers and cases

Windows technological breakthroughs

The more narrow the subject material, the more likely you are to select keywords that bring in targeted audience members. There is also less likely to be competition for your keywords. You want to pay as little as possible to attract AdSense revenues. This is how to make the most bang for your buck when blogging on technology.

Remember that the secret is out; technology is a great niche to take advantage of. People are constantly seeking new and exciting information about technology. So discover the areas you can write better about, and dig in. Discover for yourself the secret behind technology blogging and find a good niche in the technology blogging that you and your business can get benefit from.

Leaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

We’re at risk of missing out on some of the most profound opportunities offered by the technology revolution that has just begun.

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.

 

  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech

 

The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.

 

According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.” 

 

Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later). 

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,

 

“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.” 

 

Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale. 

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:

 

“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.” 

 

In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors. 

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.

 

“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.” 

 

For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts. 

 

“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow. 

 

Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added, 

 

“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.” 

 

If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust? 

THE GREEN ECONOMY is an information company, providing timely, credible facts and analyses on companies adapting to meet the challenges of a green future.

Markets are in transition; customers are demanding a higher quality of life, such as clean water and energy. These pressures are affecting commodity prices, access to markets, the nature of innovation and more. At the same time, infrastructure (water, energy, transportation), is becoming more – not less – localized. These changes mean opportunities and demand new partnerships to deliver increasingly complex solutions. THE GREEN ECONOMY tells those stories.

Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.